To study the methods of work, project management has developed various techniques and methods (analytical, graphical, experimental, through flowcharts, etc.).
Through flowcharts, the sequence of activities performed by individuals is recorded in appropriate tables using standard symbols and thus a flowchart is drawn up.
Another method that has found wide application in work processes is that of critical scrutiny.
It uses the survey method to find out what, how, when, where, and why the activity is performed and who does it.
Two questions arise here: is there a need for this activity and are there better alternatives for doing it? Existing methods can be grouped into analytical and summary measurement methods. The total methods of measurement include the methods of rationing / experimental, statistical, comparative, etc./.
Methods for studying working time include timing. The study here begins with an analysis of the main elements of the work. The next stage involves individual measurement of each element with a stopwatch. After a series of iterations, the collected data is averaged.
The average duration is adjusted to take into account the speed and efficiency of the operator to see the effect of fatigue and calculate the allowed rest depending on the work 10-15%.
Capacity characteristics. Process selection and production capacity decisions are part of the production strategy and are therefore one of the most important decisions.
These solutions are related to the size, number, nature, and location of capacities, the ability to meet peak loads, and respond to the level and trends of uncertain market demand.
Capacity planning is perceived as a process of determining and deploying production facilities in the long run. This defines the competitiveness of the production unit.
Production capacity – capacity – this is much. production result that the production system can provide for a certain period.
Capacity should be considered as a feature to perform a certain job for a certain period, and not for work done. A very important point is the measurement of capacity. It is determined by the same measures – natural, value, labor.
Different types of capacity are known in production management, namely:
- Designer – this is the maximum volume of production that can be achieved under ideal conditions;
- Effective capacity – used to characterize the maximum result that can be achieved under real production conditions, taking into account accidents, lack of stocks and more.
- Current result – is a quantitative measure of production for a given period.
It, as well as the capacity, can be measured in natural or other appropriate units, as well as by the standard production time. The main characteristics of the capacity are.
The capacity of a production system
The capacity of a production system is an important piece of information for planning tasks.
The main questions of capacity planning are: what kind of capacity is needed?
How much capacity is needed ? When is it needed?
These decisions are key incapacity planning because the production manager must provide sufficient capacity to meet current and future demand or to bear the consequences of missed opportunities due to lack of capacity.
The available actual capacity is determined in 2 ways: by measurement and by calculation. The very measurement of the capacity of the production system determines the competitiveness of the enterprise and is one of the most important moments of incapacity planning.
However, the main key point is to what extent and to what extent this capacity will meet the long-term and short-term demand and sales forecasts. Therefore, the components of planning are long-term capacity planning – used to provide production capacity and required resources 2 and more years ahead.
Medium-term aggregate planning – covers periods up to 2 years; short-term planning – plans and controls the production in a period of days to several weeks to ensure the implementation of production tasks and programs.
Available capacity must be balanced to meet needs. In case the capacity needs cannot be met, a change in the priority plans is required. Reference: “Change Management Plan Example”, https://bpedia.org
The activity of establishing, measuring, monitoring, and adjusting the capacity levels reflects the content side of the capacity management. It consists of planning and control functions.